The balance of available evidence supports a birthdate in January 840. The impression gained from Arab sources, however, is one of Michael as an active and often successful military commander. Michael was the youngest child of the emperor Theophilos and his empress Theodora. Michael was the youngest child of Emperor Theophilos and Theodora. Michael was generally kept in the background, even overshadowed on the coins by his sister Thecla. The solution he chose was to have Ingerina marry his favorite courtier and chamberlain Basil the Macedonian. Basil, as the sole remaining emperor (Basiliskianos had presumably been disposed of at the same time as Michael), automatically succeeded as the ruling basileus. Already crowned co-ruler by his father in 840, Michael III had just turned two years old when he succeeded as sole emperor on January 20, 842. The family of Theodora seems to have followed her to court. The icon, known as "The Triumph of Orthodoxy", dates to the early 15th century CE but is itself a copy of an older one which commemorates the restoration of icons in the Christian Church in March 843 CE. The empress had iconodule sympathies and deposed Patriarch John VII of Constantinople, replacing him with the iconodule Patriarch Methodius I of Constantinople in 843. Early life. Theodora, a long time closet iconophile despite her late husband’s opposit… On 19 December 858 Photios was a layman, on the 20th he was tonsured and over the next four days was ordained lector, sub-deacon, deacon and priest; on 25 December he was consecrated Patriarch of Constantinople. When the aged and popular ruler died in 842 CE the powerful court eunuch and chief minister Theoktistos and Michael’s mother Theodora both governed as the new emperor’s regents. During his minority, the empire was governed by his mother Theodora, her uncle Sergios, and the minister Theoktistos. While Michael carried on his relationship with Ingerina, Basil was kept satisfied with the emperor's sister Thekla, whom her brother retrieved from a monastery. Theodora (Greek: Θεοδώρα, c. 815 - after 867) was a Byzantine Empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos… Bust of Christ Pantokrator. Artist, Unknown. Toggle navigation. Michael celebrated the birth of Leo with public chariot races, a sport he enthusiastically patronized and participated in. He was given the disparaging epithet the Drunkard (ὁ Μέθυσος) by the hostile historians of the succeeding Macedonian dynasty, but modern historical research has rehabilitated his reputation to some extent, demonstrating the vital role his reign played in the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 9th century.[1][2]. AV Solidus (4.44 gm). Last modified November 15, 2017. [10], Michael III took an active part in the wars against the Abbasids and their vassals on the eastern frontier from 856 to 863, and particularly in 857 when he sent an army of 50,000 men against Emir Umar al-Aqta of Melitene. Several churches hold her as their patron saint. Much of the credit for these achievements, however, must go to Theodora and Theoktistos up to 855, and Bardas and Petronas thereafter. Theodora (Bulgarian: Теодора) of Wallachia was the daughter of Basarab I of Wallachia (r. 1310–1352) and Lady Margareta. This curious development may have been intended to legitimize the eventual succession to the throne of Eudokia Ingerina's son Leo, who was widely believed to be Michael's son. Fol­low­ing the death of her hus­band, Theodora served as re­gent for her son Michael. This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 14:00. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 15 Nov 2017. With the support of Bardas and another uncle, a successful general named Petronas, Michael III overthrew the regency on 15 March 856 and relegated his mother and sisters to a monastery in 857. Ostensibly troubled by the favour Michael was beginning to show to another courtier, named Basiliskianos, whom he threatened to raise as another co-emperor, Basil had Michael assassinated as he lay insensible in his bedchamber following a drinking bout in September 867. Miguel iii.a 867ko irailean hil baino lehen, Eudokia Ingerinak Leon VI.a Jakituna erditu zuen. One of them was the 9th century Empress Theodora. Malden, Massachusetts and West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell. The balance of available evidence supports a birthdate in January 840. البريد الإلكتروني: infotheodora and michael [email protected]; هاتف: 5284 74 543 (+966) إحجز الأن . Partial bust of Michael III, bearded, wearing a crown surmounted by a cross, and holding in his right hand a labarum. This marriage produced four children — Michael Asen, Ivan Sratsimir, Ivan Asen and Vasilisa. Image; SB 1687: Michael III, with Theodora. Theodora (c. 815 – after 867) was a Byzantine Empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855. ... نُشر في يناير 12, 2021 بواسطة . John I, Duke of Brabant 23= 23. Michael III had no children by his wife Eudokia Dekapolitissa, but was believed to have fathered one or two sons by his mistress Eudokia Ingerina: Leo VI, who succeeded as emperor in 886. She was wed to the newly crowned Theophilus in AD 830 following a "bride show" in which eligible maidens from all over the Empire were paraded before the young emperor. For her restoration of the veneration of icons, which ended the Byzantine Iconoclasm, she is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church; her Feast Day is 11 February. Circular inscription. 16 Jan 2021. She was sole ruler from 11 January 1055. Photios was a kinsman of both Bardas and Michael III. Thank you! AV Solidus (4.44 gm). Her brothers became officials and her sisters married into the court aristocracy. Two years of age at his father’s death, his mother Theodora and the logothete tou dromou Theoktistos effectively managed the government for fourteen years. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Gjuzelev, V., (1988) Medieval Bulgaria, Byzantine Empire, Black Sea, Venice, Genoa (Centre Culturel du Monde Byzantin). Theodora (Θεοδώρα, c. 815 – after 867) was a Byzantine empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855. Theophilus maintained the restored iconoclastic policies initiated by Leo V in 813 after the first period of restoration of veneration under Empress Irene in the late eighth century. https://www.ancient.eu/image/7628/. Under the guidance of Patriarch Photios, Michael sponsored the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodios to the Khazar Khagan in an effort to stop the expansion of Judaism among the Khazars. The youngest son would succeed his father as Emperor Michael III. [21], Though Michael III was allegedly prone to squander money, his reign stabilized the economy, and by the year 850 the empire's annual revenues had increased to 3,300,000 nomismata. Constantinople mint. The definitive end to iconoclasm early in his reign led, unsurprisingly, to a renaissance in visual arts.

So Michael concocted a strange domestic arrangement to cover up his liaison. A council of regency was set up, in which the dowager empress, Theodora, and her chief minister, Theoctistus, were the leading figures. The Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341. She died in 1228. Michael III was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian Dynasty. Already crowned co-ruler by his father in his infancy in 840, Michael had just turned two years old when his father died, and Michael succeeded him as sole emperor on 20 January 842. Theodora was a Byzantine empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855. Border of dots. Byzantine forces were defeated by the Abbasids in Pamphylia, Crete, and on the border with Syria, but a Byzantine fleet of 85 ships did score a victory over the Arabs in 853. She over­rode Theophilus' ec­cle­si­as­ti­cal pol­icy and sum­moned a coun­cil under the pa­tri­arch Method­ius, in which the ven­er­a­tion, but not wor­ship, of icons (im­ages of Jesus Christ and the saints) was fi­nally re­stored and the icon­o­clas­ticclergy de­posed. She is best known for her restoration of the veneration of icons, which ended the Byzantine Iconoclasm. Burial Theodora Palaiologina (née en 1295), est décédée jeune. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Reverse: Inscription: +ΜΙΧΑΗLSΘΕΟDORA. THEODORA, BYZANTINE EMPRESS (2) Reigned 842 to 855; wife of theophilus (reigned 829 – 842), mother of michael iii (842 – 867), saint in the Orthodox Church; b.Paphlagonia, c. 810; d. Constantinople, 862. In 863, Petronas defeated and killed the emir of Melitene at the battle of Lalakaon, and celebrated a triumph in the capital.[11]. Basil with a number of his male relatives, plus other accomplices, entered Michael's apartment; the locks had been tampered with and no guard had been placed. Bulgarian historical review (2005), United Center for Research and Training in History, Published by Pub. Theodora (Greek: Θεοδώρα, Medieval Greek: c. 815 – after 867) was a Byzantine empress as the spouse of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos' death in 842 to 855.For her restoration of the veneration of icons, which ended the Byzantine Iconoclasm, she is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church; her Feast Day is 11 February. His mother Theodora was effective ruler of the empire, and the first coinage of his reign gives her prominence of position. [4], As the emperor was growing up, the courtiers around him fought for influence. Byzantine forces, led by the emperor and the caesar Bardas, were successful in reconquering a number of cities – Philippopolis, Develtus, Anchialus and Mesembria among them – as well as the region of Zagora. Increasingly fond of his uncle Bardas, Michael invested him with the title kaisar (Caesar – at the time a title second only to emperor) and allowed him to murder Theoktistos in November 855. [6] Michael was also responsible, as per the writings of Constantine VII, for the subjugation of the Slavs settled in the Peloponnese. Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Byzantine regent Theodora and her young son, the emperor Michael III (r. 842-867 CE). In 853 Boris had allied himself to Rastislav of Moravia against the Franks. There were also many operations around the Aegean and off the Syrian coast by at least three more fleets, numbering 300 ships total. Already crowned co-ruler by his father in 840, Michael III had just turned two years old … Basil gained increasing influence over Michael, and in April 866 he convinced the emperor that the Caesar Bardas was conspiring against him and was duly allowed to murder Bardas. During her own marriage she bore Theophilus five daughters and two sons, the younger of whom became the future Michael III.. Michael was the youngest child of Emperor Theophilos and Theodora. [19], Michael's remains were buried in the Philippikos Monastery at Chrysopolis on the Asian shore of the Bosphoros. Constantinople mint. Michael was a child of two years when his father Theophilus died in 842 AD. The icon, known as "The Triumph of Orthodoxy", dates to the early 15th century CE but is itself a copy of an older one which commemorates the restoration of icons in the Christian Church in March 843 CE. She was born into the Macedonian dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two hundred years. How­ever, it was dur­in… Instead, just as Andronikos II, Theodore II saw himself forced to accept the arrangement. [1] [2] She married Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria as his first wife. His successors called him the Drunkard but that seems to have been an exaggeration. This put an end to the second spell of iconoclasm. Although this mission was a failure, their next mission in 863 secured the conversion of Great Moravia and devised the Glagolitic alphabet for writing in Slavonic, thus allowing Slavic-speaking peoples to approach conversion to Orthodox Christianity through their own rather than an alien tongue. Familia. Theodora was the youngest daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VIII and Helena, daughter of Alypius. Michael presided over a synod in 867 in which Photios and the three other eastern patriarchs excommunicated Pope Nicholas and condemned the Latin filioque clause concerning the procession of the Holy Spirit. Boris took the additional name of Michael at the ceremony. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Published by Verlag Baier. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Most importantly Bulgaria had been transformed into a religious and cultural satellite of Byzantium. She was born of humble origins at the beginning of the sixth centuryprobably in the year 500and died on June 28, 548. During his minority, the empire was governed by a regency headed by his mother Theodora, her uncle Sergios, and the minister Theoktistos. DOC III 1d.3; SB 1686. The ascendency of Bardas and the Christianisation of Bulgaria, The rise of Basil the Macedonian and the assassination of Michael. She was born of a wealthy family of partly Armenian origin. Michael Palaiologos En 1328, Andronikos III entra dans Constantinople en triomphe et Andronikos II fut contraint d'abdiquer. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. [18], If ensuring Leo's legitimacy had been Michael's plan, it backfired. Artist, U. Michael III was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty. The Byzantine Empire wanted to regain its control over some areas of Thrace, including Philippopolis (Plovdiv) and the ports around the Gulf of Burgas on the Black Sea. [5], The internal stabilization of the state was not entirely matched along the frontiers. Under the influence of both Bardas and Photios, Michael presided over the reconstruction of ruined cities and structures, the reopening of closed monasteries, and the reorganization of the imperial university at the Maganaura palace under Leo the Mathematician. Finlay, G. (1856), History of the Byzantine Empire from DCCXVI to MLVII, 2nd Edition, Published by W. Blackwood. Bardas justified his usurpation of the regency by introducing various internal reforms. In 859, he personally led a siege on Samosata, but in 860 had to abandon the expedition to repel an attack by the Rus' on Constantinople. [13] Although a Council of Constantinople in 861 confirmed Photios as patriarch, Ignatios appealed to Pope Nicholas I, who declared Photios illegitimate in 863, leading to the Photian schism. Theodora III Porphyrogenita (Greek: Θεοδώρα Πορφυρογενίτη, Theodōra Porphyrogenítē; c. 980 – 31 August 1056) was Byzantine Empress from 19 April 1042 to her death on 31 August 1056. Paphlagonian jaioa, Theodora jatorri aristokratiko ... Michael iii.aren maitalea, Eudoki Ingerina, Basilio I.arekin ezkondu zen 865 inguruan. Michael was the youngest child of the emperor Theophilos and his empress Theodora, the balance of available evidence suggests that he as born in January 840. Life. Original image by Unknown Artist. [15], Fearing the potential conversion of Boris I of Bulgaria to Christianity under Frankish influence, Michael III and the Caesar Bardas invaded Bulgaria, imposing the conversion of Boris according to the Byzantine rite as part of the peace settlement in 864. [3] Already crowned co-ruler by his father in his infancy in 840, Michael had just turned two years old when his father died, and Michael succeeded him as sole emperor on 20 January 842. [12] Photios, originally a layman, had entered holy orders and was promoted to the position of patriarch on the dismissal of the troublesome Ignatios in 858. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Little is know about the early life of Theodora, who rose to become one of the most famous women in Western civilization. Michael was the youngest child of Emperor Theophilos and Theodora. The Byzantines also allowed the Bulgarians to reclaim the contested border region of Zagora. [8][9] At the time of this campaign the Bulgarians were distracted by a war with the Franks under Louis the German and the Croatians. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. The Bulgarians were heavily defeated by the Franks; following this, the Moravians changed sides and the Bulgarians then faced threats from Moravia. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. THEODORA EMPRESS, c. 867 . (British Museum, London). SB 1687: Michael III, with Theodora. Michael III (856–867) The reign of Michael is a reign of regents and advisors. Share. 842-867 AD. Following an expedition led by Michael's uncle and general, Petronas, against the Paulicians from the eastern frontier and the Arab borderlands in 856, the imperial government resettled them in Thrace, thus cutting them off from their coreligionists and populating another border region. Theodora Theodora on a … Theodora, however, secretly was … Artist, Unknown. [16] The conversion of the Bulgarians has been evaluated as one of the greatest cultural and political achievements of the Byzantine Empire. Michael III was the third and traditionally last member of the Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. This item is in the public domain, and can be used, copied, and modified without any restrictions. "Theodora & Michael III." The Empire made considerable advances in internal organisation and religious cohesion, and it had more than held its own against the Abbasid Caliphate. When Leo VI became ruling emperor in 886, one of his first acts was to have Michael's body exhumed and reburied, with great ceremony, in the imperial mausoleum in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. [14] The conflict over the patriarchal throne and supreme authority within the church was exacerbated by the success of the active missionary efforts launched by Photios. Michael became a child emperor (Jan. 20, 842) upon the death of his father, Theophilus. [17], Michael III's marriage with Eudokia Dekapolitissa was childless, but the emperor did not want to risk a scandal by attempting to marry his mistress Eudokia Ingerina, daughter of the Varangian (Norse) imperial guard Inger. Michael was the youngest child of the emperor Theophilos and his empress Theodora. (2017, November 15). Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. [20], The reign and personality of Michael III are difficult to evaluate because of the hostile accounts written by Byzantine authors operating under Basil I and his successors. Uploaded by Mark Cartwright, published on 15 November 2017 under the following license: Public Domain. See Tougher, p 69. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Michael_III&oldid=996092793, Byzantine people of the Arab–Byzantine wars, Burials at the Church of the Holy Apostles, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Although an important primary source for the life of Theodora and the era in whic… Theodora, who ruled as regent for Michael III during his long minority, was one of the more successful female Byzantine rulers. Byzantine accounts describe Michael's habitual drunkenness, his obsession with chariot racing and his orchestration of public displays mocking the processions and rituals of the church. A History of Byzantium. Theodora, Michael III-aren ama. House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, v.33:no.1-4. Michael was born in 839 CE to Emperor Theophilos (r. 829-842 CE). Web. Now without serious rivals, Basil was crowned co-emperor on 26 May 866 and was adopted by the much younger Michael III. [22], Michael III had no children by his wife Eudokia Dekapolitissa but was conjectured to have fathered one or two sons by his mistress Eudokia Ingerina, who was married to Basil I:[23]. :503 As an eligible imperial princess, she was considered as a possible bride for the Holy Roman Emperor in the west, Otto III in 996.:253 However, Theodora was overlooked in favour of her sister Zoe, who was selected as the potential bride, but Otto III died before the wedding. Byzantine regent Theodora and her young son, the emperor Michael III (r. 842-867 CE). This exquisite fragment depicts the Archangel Michael. Theodora: Michael III (Greek: Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III; 839 or 840 – 23/24 September, 867) was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867. Nevertheless, Theodora exerted influence at court, as demonstrated by her ordering the arrest and blinding of John the Eunuch, the powerful administrator who had been the chief minister of Romanos III, the brother of Michael IV, and the uncle of Michael V; he had lived in exile after the fall of Michael V.: 505 Obverse: IHSYSXRISTOS. Michael's end was grisly; a man named John of Chaldia killed him, cutting off both the emperor's hands with a sword before finishing him off with a thrust to the heart. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. "Theodora & Michael III." Based on Wikipedia content that has been reviewed, edited, and republished. Theodora, Empress and Her Son, Emperor Michael III The Byzantine Empress Theodora Only a few women reached the zenith of power in the male-dominated world of the Byzantines. Gregory, Timothy E. (2010). Michael III (Greek: Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III; 839 or 840 – 23/24 September, 867) was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867. 842-867 AD. [7], A conflict between the Byzantines and Bulgarian Empire occurred during 855 and 856. Theodora & Michael III. His reign did play a role in the resurgence of Byzantine power during the 9th century, but he was also dominated by his mother Theodora. Theodora II: lt;p|>|Theodora| (|Greek|: |Θεοδώρα|, c. 815 – after 867) was a Byzantine Empress as the spouse o... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. The following year the use of icons was restored but with a conciliatory ecclesiastical policy toward the Iconoclasts. Much of what is known comes from the writings of the sixth-century Byzantine historian Procopius of Caesarea (d. 565), especially his seven-volume Anecdota (commonly called Secret History). Malgré la résolution des problèmes en Europe , Andronikos II a été confronté à l'effondrement de la frontière byzantine en Asie Mineure , malgré les gouvernorats réussis, mais courts, d' Alexios Philanthropenos et de John Tarchaneiotes . Busts of the emperor Michael III and the empress Theodora. Another less popular tale about Theophilos and Theodora’s marriage was that during the bride show, the future emperor gave out golden apples to the candidates and told them to come back to the palace the day after. Andronikos' reign was marked by the beginning of the decline of the Byzantine Empire. Theodora (wife of Theophilos): | | ||| | Theodora as a saint, in a 19th-century Greek icon... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. Michael III and Theodora (843?–856) Obverse. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/image/7628/. Michael III (b: January 19, 840; 842 – 867AD) was the third and last member of the Amorian (or Phrygian) dynasty. Michael III stood as sponsor, by proxy, for Boris at his baptism. Michael III (Greek: Μιχαήλ Γʹ, Mikhaēl III), (January 19, 840 – September 23/24, 867), Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867. She car­ried on the gov­ern­ment with a firm and ju­di­cious hand; she re­plen­ished the trea­sury and de­terred the Bul­gar­i­ans from an at­tempt at invasion. Michael had an older sister, Thekla, and the two siblings appear on the reverse of goldcoins minted by their mother.

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